Chasing Packets in GNS3 & Production Environment, Part 1: Capturing packets using built-in Live Wireshark Capture in GNS3 1.4.4

Why do you want to do this lab?

You can capture any interesting packets and analyse for your learning purpose, analyzing packet captures can give you the real inside of how the packets are working on the devices and on different segments of the network. Simply reading the books and learn about how packets work behind the scenes is a little like trying to learn something as if you are three wise monkeys (see no evil, hear no evil, speak no evil).

On the real production, you can use other methods to capture interesting packets. Some examples are IOS Embedded Packet capture and tee off the configuration to a TFTP server, use a sniffer using spanning port or remote spanning port. Also, use more advanced method of Cisco NAM (Network Analyzer).

In this part, I will quickly show you how to whiz up a simple lab and capture some packets on GNS3 and Wireshark live capture within, GNS3. In the next section, I will demonstrate IOS Embedded Packet capture and teeing off to a TFTP server. Lastly, I will demonstrate packet capturing using spanning port and remote span.

Prerequisite 1: GNS3 1.4.4 pre-installed on Windows PC/laptop

Prerequisite 2: IOU VM ova deployed and integrated with GNS3

Prerequisite 3: Familiar with VMware workstation and Windows loopback configuration

 

Topology:

aaa1

Step 1: Add devices as below and make all connections. When you add the devices, your GNS3 topology will look like this. Remember to use dummy switches to make connection between your virtual machines and your host PC loopback to your IOU switches.

aaa2.png

Step 2: Configure your routers and switches similar to the configuration found in  the attached zip file.

r1

r2

sw1

sw2

 

Step 3: Capture packets using various link positions

aaa3

aaa4

If you run into the following error, you will have to go to GNS3 setting and update the path of Wireshark.

aaa5

=> Error: SW3: Could not start the packet capture reader: [WinError 2] The system cannot find the file specified: None

Changing path in GSN3 preferences:

C:\Program Files\Wireshark\wireshark.exe” ==> C:\Program Files (x86)\Wireshark\wireshark.exe

 

Step 4: Wireshark will open automatically and start capturing all the traffic on the link you have selected.

e.g.) TCP/IP packet capture example

aaa6.png

e.g.) Voice packet capture using soft phones (On virtual machines) between two work stations and CUCM.

aaa7

Now you can set up any server and clients and study how TCP/IP, UDP work behind the scenes. Jump straight in and try to enjoy your study!

 

Note: This lab can be completed on a single PC, Save Electricity, save Money, save Time, SAVE THE PLANET.

 

 

 

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Notes on Cisco QoS: Clearing the fog – Part 2. Quality issues

Quality of Service

QOS = Method of giving priority to some specific traffic as moving over the network.

The basic aim of QoS is to have a consistent and predictable performance on your network.

 

1 qos intro

General characteristics of today’s Converged Network:

  • Small voice packet compete with bursty data packets, many different applications are using network as services
  • Critical traffic must get priority over less critical traffic, without QoS, default behavior is First In First Out (FIFO)
  • Voice and video traffics are time-sensitive
  • Outages are not acceptable

 

Converged Network Quality issues:

  • Lack of Bandwidth
  • Packet Loss
  • Delay
  • Jitter

 

Bandwidth

2 Bandwidth Measure.png

  • Maximum available bandwidth is the slowest link on the traffic paths
  • On the same physical links (traffic paths), multiple flows compete for the same bandwidth, multiple applications sharing the same bandwidth
  • Lack of bandwidth causes performance degradation on network applications

 

 

Packet Loss

3 Tail Drop due to Queue Congestion

Packet loss due to Tail Drop: Queue only can so much packets and once it is full and more packets arrive at the tail end of the queue before the queue is emptied (due to link congestion etc.), the packets will be dropped, and this behavior is called ‘Tail Drop’. If the tail drop occurs to the time sensitive traffics such as voice and video, the effects are immediately felt by the users on the flow. If this happens to data traffic, it may interrupt file transfer and corrupt the file.

 

 

Delay

4 Types of Delay

  • Processing Delay – time taken by router to process packets from an input interface and put them into the output queue of output interface
  • Queuing Delay – time a packet resides in the output queue of a router
  • Serialization Delay – time taken to place bits on the wire
  • Propagation Delay – time taken for packets to cross links from one end to the other end

 

 

Jitter

5 Jitter

  • Packets from a source will reach a destination with different delay times
  • Congestion on the network will cause jitter
  • Congestion can occur at a router interface/Service Provider network if the circuits are not properly provisioned

 

CCNA Routing Lab 1-0: The set up

We will try to prepare a lab where we can configure and test different features of Cisco Routers and Switches. For the purpose of saving time and minimize our on-going efforts to set up each lab, two multi-purpose lab typologies will be configured, namely one for routing and another for switching. Once the lab is set up, it can be used in multiple scenarios and a lab can be configured on the fly to teach us the required technologies. This section is the routing part and will be titled ‘Routing Lab 1-x’, where x represents the lab number. In the same manner, the switching labs will be titled ‘CCNA Switching Lab 1-x’.

Lab prerequisite: You have followed my blog or other people’s blog, or watched YouTube and set up your GNS3 with IOU at some stage.

I have drawn a lab topology  we are trying to configure and mimic:

사용자 지정 8

Step 1: As shown below, drop four IOU routers, two IOU L2 switches and one GNS3 native GNS3 Frame Relay Switch.

활성화 윈도우 4

Step 2: Add DLCIs in FR1 to prepare for Frame Relay Switch ready for connection.사용자 지정 3

Step 3: Connect all devices as shown below. and now you are ready to start your first Routing lab.

활성화 윈도우 1